Periodontology is a branch of Dentistry that studies periodontal tissues (peri = around; odons = tooth) and related diseases. The periodontium consists of:

  1. gum
  2. alveolar bone
  3. cementum (tissue that covers the tooth root)
  4. periodontal ligament.

The periodontology is then occupies the whole of the soft tissues (periodontal ligament and the gingiva) and hard (cement and alveolar bone tissue) surrounding the tooth and alveolar arch which ensure its stability (in health conditions). Periodontics, also takes care of diseases affecting the periodontium. These are generically called periodontitis or periodontal disease, or periodontal disease (historical term still used today in the population). They are periodontitis and gingivitis.

Etiology of periodontal disease

Periodontal disease is an infectious multifactorial disease site-specific. Or:

  1. infectious: the necessary cause that can never fail are bacteria (plaque);
  2. multifactorial: it has multiple causes that together can reinforce and exacerbate the effects of infectious component;
  3. site-specific: each tooth and every area can be differently affected, serious, moderate, little or nothing; this is necessary for an accurate diagnosis tooth to tooth.

Periodontal disease can present as gingivitis or periodontitis. The first involves the rehabilitation, the "recovered fully," the supporting tissues, the second involves more after healing an irreversible lesion.

Incidence of periodontal disease

It is estimated that at least ten million Italians suffer from such illnesses after thirty years of age; with periodontal disease is lost "attack" (epithelial attachment, which in fact is not lost, but it moves apically, moving away from the tooth towards the root) and alveolar bone. These periodontal anatomical changes are consequences of the disease lead to two possible clinical manifestations:

  1. gingival recession (gum lowered that is highlighted with a longer tooth)
  2. pocket periodontal (gum in the correct position, but the bone and the attack have moved apically along the root, thus forming an empty space called periodontal pocket).

Periodontal disease aggressive child

Although this disease can occur in children and is mainly due to an organism: the actinomices actinomicetemcomitans. Other conditions are particularly unfavorable anatomical favor it that facilitate the loss of gum; poor hygiene and a resulting inflammation may aggravate the lesions usually heal after appropriate antibiotic treatment and the restoration of good practice of oral hygiene.

In our study Doctors Dentists and Dental Hygienists graduates they are particularly experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, the assessment of which requires specific knowledge and skills.